Every unit in the game has a combat strength of one. There is no die rolling and no luck involved. Units of equal power will always cause a standoff against each other.
In this case, the Turkish attack on the Austrians at Budapest will be strength one vs. one. The result will be the status quo, a “bounce”
In this case, both try to move into the other’s province. This would result in a standoff, not a trading of places.
Both armies attempted to move into Galacia. This results in another one vs. one “bounce”. Both sides would remain in place, and Galacia would remain empty.
This will happen, even between allied units. Here, Serbia and Romania bounce each other, and Budapest remains unoccupied.
Here three powers try to capture the same province with one unit each. Like the previous example, no one would get the province.
This would NOT cause a standoff. In this situation Turkey would move to Budapest, and Austria would move to Vienna.
Breaking a Stalemate
Stalemates are broken by means of support. Here the Serbian army lends it support, and the Rumanian Turk army attacks Budapest at two strength to one. This would “dislodge” the Austrians
This is NOT support! This would be one vs. one vs. one, and would result in the status quo. This is the most common rookie mistake in Diplomacy.
Dislodged- What happens when you lose the battle
When a enemy attacks you with greater strength, your unit will be “dislodged” and forced to either retreat or disband. If there is no place to retreat, your unit is destroyed.
The Austrian army in Budapest has been dislodged. It must choose a province to retreat to, or else disband. A unit may retreat to any unoccupied province, except of course the one from which it was attacked.
Units can even retreat to provinces that are enemy controlled (colored)! As long as they are unoccupied.
The Austrian army in Bulgaria has been dislodged by the Turks. Because it is not a fleet, it cannot flee out to sea, and thus has no valid retreat moves. The army is destroyed.
Likewise, this Austrian Fleet has nowhere to retreat, as it cannot move further inland. If dislodged, it will be destroyed.